## Daftar Lengkap Simbol Matematika & Artinya

Konsep dalam matematika didasarkan pada hubungan angka dan simbol. Simbol-simbol dalam matematika ini digunakan untuk melakukan operasi bilangan matematika yang berbeda dan mewakili berbagai konsep matematika.

Simbol di bawah ini digunakan untuk merujuk besaran matematika dan membantu dengan penandaan yang mudah untuk disalin dan disematkan di web pada saat kita membuat postingan blog atau membuat soal melalui *goolge form *oleh guru.

Terdapat banyak simbol matematika yang diterapkan dalam konsep matematika, mulai dari penambahan dan pengurangan sederhana hingga operasi rumit seperti integrasi. Inilah alasan utama mengapa saya membuat daftar ini, agar ketika kita membutuhkan tinggal kita copy dari web ini.

### Daftar simbol matematika

#### 1. Simbol Matematika Dasar

Symbol | Symbol Name | Meaning / definition | Example |
---|---|---|---|

= | equals sign | equality | 5 = 2+35 is equal to 2+3 |

≠ | not equal sign | inequality | 5 ≠ 45 is not equal to 4 |

≈ | approximately equal | approximation | sin(0.01) ≈ 0.01,x ≈ y means x is approximately equal to y |

> | strict inequality | greater than | 5 > 45 is greater than 4 |

< | strict inequality | less than | 4 < 54 is less than 5 |

≥ | inequality | greater than or equal to | 5 ≥ 4,x ≥ y means x is greater than or equal to y |

≤ | inequality | less than or equal to | 4 ≤ 5,x ≤ y means x is less than or equal to y |

( ) | parentheses | calculate expressions inside first | 2 × (3+5) = 16 |

[ ] | brackets | calculate expressions inside first | [(1+2)×(1+5)] = 18 |

+ | plus sign | addition | 1 + 1 = 2 |

− | minus sign | subtraction | 2 − 1 = 1 |

± | plus - minus | both plus and minus operations | 3 ± 5 = 8 or -2 |

± | minus - plus | both minus and plus operations | 3 ∓ 5 = -2 or 8 |

* | asterisk | multiplication | 2 * 3 = 6 |

× | times sign | multiplication | 2 × 3 = 6 |

⋅ | multiplication dot | multiplication | 2 ⋅ 3 = 6 |

÷ | division sign / obelus | division | 6 ÷ 2 = 3 |

/ | division slash | division | 6 / 2 = 3 |

mod | modulo | remainder calculation | 7 mod 2 = 1 |

. | period | decimal point, decimal separator | 2.56 = 2+56/100 |

ab | power | exponent | 23 = 8 |

a^b | caret | exponent | 2 ^ 3 = 8 |

√a | square root | √a ⋅ √a = a | √9 = ±3 |

3√a | cube root | 3√a ⋅ 3√a ⋅ 3√a = a | 3√8 = 2 |

4√a | fourth root | 4√a ⋅ 4√a ⋅ 4√a ⋅ 4√a = a | 4√16 = ±2 |

n√a | n-th root (radical) | n/a | for n=3, n√8 = 2 |

% | percent | 1% = 1/100 | 10% × 30 = 3 |

‰ | per-mille | 1‰ = 1/1000 = 0.1% | 10‰ × 30 = 0.3 |

ppm | per-million | 1ppm = 1/1000000 | 10ppm × 30 = 0.0003 |

ppb | per-billion | 1ppb = 1/1000000000 | 10ppb × 30 = 3×10-7 |

ppt | per-trillion | 1ppt = 10-12 | 10ppt × 30 = 3×10-10 |

#### 2. Simbol Aljabar

Symbol | Symbol Name | Meaning / definition | Example |
---|---|---|---|

x | x variable | unknown value to find | when 2x = 4, then x = 2 |

≡ | equivalence | identical to | n/a |

≜ | equal by definition | equal by definition | n/a |

:= | equal by definition | equal by definition | n/a |

~ | approximately equal | weak approximation | 11 ~ 10 |

≈ | approximately equal | approximation | sin(0.01) ≈ 0.01 |

∝ | proportional to | proportional to | y ∝ x when y = kx, k constant |

∞ | lemniscate | infinity symbol | n/a |

≪ | much less than | much less than | 1 ≪ 1000000 |

≫ | much greater than | much greater than | 1000000 ≫ 1 |

( ) | parentheses | calculate expression inside first | 2 * (3+5) = 16 |

[ ] | brackets | calculate expression inside first | [(1+2)*(1+5)] = 18 |

{ } | braces | set | n/a |

⌊x⌋ | floor brackets | rounds number to lower integer | ⌊4.3⌋ = 4 |

⌈x⌉ | ceiling brackets | rounds number to upper integer | ⌈4.3⌉ = 5 |

x! | exclamation mark | factorial | 4! = 1*2*3*4 = 24 |

| x | | single vertical bar | absolute value | | -5 | = 5 |

f (x) | function of x | maps values of x to f(x) | f (x) = 3x+5 |

(f ∘ g) | function composition | (f ∘ g) (x) = f (g(x)) | f (x)=3x,g(x)=x-1 ⇒(f ∘ g)(x)=3(x-1) |

(a,b) | open interval | (a,b) = {x | a < x < b} | x∈ (2,6) |

[a,b] | closed interval | [a,b] = {x | a ≤ x ≤ b} | x ∈ [2,6] |

∆ | delta | change / difference | ∆t = t1 - t0 |

∆ | discriminant | Δ = b2 - 4ac | n/a |

∑ | sigma | summation - sum of all values in range of series | ∑ xi= x1+x2+...+xn |

∑∑ | sigma | double summation | |

∏ | capital pi | product - product of all values in range of series | ∏ xi=x1∙x2∙...∙xn |

e | e constant / Euler's number | e = 2.718281828... | e = lim (1+1/x)x , x→∞ |

γ | Euler-Mascheroni constant | γ = 0.5772156649... | n/a |

φ | golden ratio | golden ratio constant | n/a |

π | pi constant | π = 3.141592654...is the ratio between the circumference and diameter of a circle | c = π⋅d = 2⋅π⋅r |

#### 3. Simbol Geometri

Symbol | Symbol Name | Meaning / definition | Example |
---|---|---|---|

∠ | angle | formed by two rays | ∠ABC = 30° |

measured angle | n/a | ABC = 30° | |

spherical angle | n/a | AOB = 30° | |

∟ | right angle | = 90° | α = 90° |

° | degree | 1 turn = 360° | α = 60° |

deg | degree | 1 turn = 360deg | α = 60deg |

′ | prime | arcminute, 1° = 60′ | α = 60°59′ |

″ | double prime | arcsecond, 1′ = 60″ | α = 60°59′59″ |

line | infinite line | n/a | |

AB | line segment | line from point A to point B | n/a |

ray | line that start from point A | n/a | |

arc | arc from point A to point B | = 60° | |

⊥ | perpendicular | perpendicular lines (90° angle) | AC ⊥ BC |

∥ | parallel | parallel lines | AB ∥ CD |

≅ | congruent to | equivalence of geometric shapes and size | ∆ABC ≅ ∆XYZ |

~ | similarity | same shapes, not same size | ∆ABC ~ ∆XYZ |

Δ | triangle | triangle shape | ΔABC ≅ ΔBCD |

|x-y| | distance | distance between points x and y | | x-y | = 5 |

π | pi constant | π = 3.141592654...is the ratio between the circumference and diameter of a circle | c = π⋅d = 2⋅π⋅r |

rad | radians | radians angle unit | 360° = 2π rad |

^{c} | radians | radians angle unit | 360° = 2π ^{c} |

grad | gradians / gons | grads angle unit | 360° = 400 grad |

^{g} | gradians / gons | grads angle unit | 360° = 400 ^{g} |

#### 4. Set Simbol Teori

Symbol | Symbol Name | Meaning / definition | Example |
---|---|---|---|

{ } | set | a collection of elements | A = {3,7,9,14}, B = {9,14,28} |

| | such that | so that | A = {x | x∈, x<0} |

A⋂B | intersection | objects that belong to set A and set B | A ⋂ B = {9,14} |

A⋃B | union | objects that belong to set A or set B | A ⋃ B = {3,7,9,14,28} |

A⊆B | subset | A is a subset of B. set A is included in set B. | {9,14,28} ⊆ {9,14,28} |

A⊂B | proper subset / strict subset | A is a subset of B, but A is not equal to B. | {9,14} ⊂ {9,14,28} |

A⊄B | not subset | set A is not a subset of set B | {9,66} ⊄ {9,14,28} |

A⊇B | superset | A is a superset of B. set A includes set B | {9,14,28} ⊇ {9,14,28} |

A⊃B | proper superset / strict superset | A is a superset of B, but B is not equal to A. | {9,14,28} ⊃ {9,14} |

A⊅B | not superset | set A is not a superset of set B | {9,14,28} ⊅ {9,66} |

2^{A} | power set | all subsets of A | n/a |

power set | all subsets of A | n/a | |

A=B | equality | both sets have the same members | A={3,9,14}, B={3,9,14}, A=B |

A^{c} | complement | all the objects that do not belong to set A | n/a |

A' | complement | all the objects that do not belong to set A | n/a |

A\B | relative complement | objects that belong to A and not to B | A = {3,9,14}, B = {1,2,3}, A \ B = {9,14} |

A-B | relative complement | objects that belong to A and not to B | A = {3,9,14}, B = {1,2,3}, A - B = {9,14} |

A∆B | symmetric difference | objects that belong to A or B but not to their intersection | A = {3,9,14}, B = {1,2,3}, A ∆ B = {1,2,9,14} |

A⊖B | symmetric difference | objects that belong to A or B but not to their intersection | A = {3,9,14}, B = {1,2,3}, A ⊖ B = {1,2,9,14} |

a∈A | element of, belongs to | set membership | A={3,9,14}, 3 ∈ A |

x∉A | not element of | no set membership | A={3,9,14}, 1 ∉ A |

(a,b) | ordered pair | collection of 2 elements | n/a |

A×B | cartesian product | set of all ordered pairs from A and B | n/a |

|A| | cardinality | the number of elements of set A | A={3,9,14}, |A|=3 |

#A | cardinality | the number of elements of set A | A={3,9,14}, #A=3 |

aleph-null | infinite cardinality of natural numbers set | n/a | |

aleph-one | cardinality of countable ordinal numbers set | n/a | |

Ø | empty set | Ø = {} | A = Ø |

universal set | set of all possible values | n/a | |

_{0} | natural numbers / whole numbers set (with zero) | _{0} = {0,1,2,3,4,...} | 0 ∈ _{0} |

_{1} | natural numbers / whole numbers set (without zero) | _{1} = {1,2,3,4,5,...} | 6 ∈ _{1} |

integer numbers set | = {...-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,...} | -6 ∈ | |

rational numbers set | = {x | x=a/b, a,b∈ and b≠0} | 2/6 ∈ | |

real numbers set | = {x | -∞ < x <∞} | 6.343434 ∈ | |

complex numbers set | = {z | z=a+bi, -∞<a<∞, -∞<b<∞} | 6+2i ∈ |

#### 5. Simbol Kalkulus & Analisis

Symbol | Symbol Name | Meaning / definition | Example |
---|---|---|---|

limit | limit value of a function | n/a | |

ε | epsilon | represents a very small number, near zero | ε → 0 |

e | e constant / Euler's number | e = 2.718281828... | e = lim (1+1/x) , ^{x}x→∞ |

y ' | derivative | derivative - Lagrange's notation | (3x^{3})' = 9x^{2} |

y '' | second derivative | derivative of derivative | (3x^{3})'' = 18x |

y^{(n)} | nth derivative | n times derivation | (3x^{3})^{(3)} = 18 |

derivative | derivative - Leibniz's notation | d(3x^{3})/dx = 9x^{2} | |

second derivative | derivative of derivative | d^{2}(3x^{3})/dx^{2} = 18x | |

nth derivative | n times derivation | n/a | |

time derivative | derivative by time - Newton's notation | n/a | |

time second derivative | derivative of derivative | n/a | |

D_{x }y | derivative | derivative - Euler's notation | n/a |

D_{x}^{2}y | second derivative | derivative of derivative | n/a |

partial derivative | n/a | ∂(x^{2}+y^{2})/∂x = 2x | |

∫ | integral | opposite to derivation | ∫ f(x)dx |

∬ | double integral | integration of function of 2 variables | ∫∫ f(x,y)dxdy |

∭ | triple integral | integration of function of 3 variables | ∫∫∫ f(x,y,z)dxdydz |

∮ | closed contour / line integral | n/a | n/a |

∯ | closed surface integral | n/a | n/a |

∰ | closed volume integral | n/a | n/a |

[a,b] | closed interval | [a,b] = {x | a ≤ x ≤ b} | n/a |

(a,b) | open interval | (a,b) = {x | a < x < b} | n/a |

i | imaginary unit | i ≡ √-1 | z = 3 + 2i |

z* | complex conjugate | z = a+bi → z*=a-bi | z* = 3 + 2i |

z | complex conjugate | z = a+bi → z = a-bi | z = 3 + 2i |

∇ | nabla / del | gradient / divergence operator | ∇f (x,y,z) |

vector | n/a | n/a | |

unit vector | n/a | n/a | |

x * y | convolution | y(t) = x(t) * h(t) | n/a |

Laplace transform | F(s) = {f (t)} | n/a | |

Fourier transform | X(ω) = {f (t)} | n/a | |

δ | delta function | n/a | n/a |

∞ | lemniscate | infinity symbol | n/a |